Program Schedule


8:00-8:50am (Hopper) Practical Application Of Pulmonary Physiology  
This presentation will utilize a review of the core concepts of pulmonary function to explain how abnormalities in PaO2 and PaCO2 occur and provide some guidelines for assessment of oxygenation and ventilation. Learning objectives
• Describe how lung disease impairs oxygenation
• Describe the major factors that can impair ventilation
• Recognize abnormalities in PaO2 and develop appropriate rule out lists
• Recognize abnormalities in PaCO2 and develop appropriate rule out lists
1 CE Credit

9:00-9:50am (Hopper) Acid-Base Evaluation
Acid-base analysis can be confusing and intimidating. The aim of this presentation is to make acid-base analysis easy and practical and to demonstrate how it can aid in diagnosis and treatment decisions. Learning objectives:
• Correctly identify and categorize acid-base abnormalities
• Recall the major rule outs for common acid base abnormalities
• Describe the indications and contraindications for bicarbonate therapy
1 CE Credit

10:10am-12:00pm (Hopper & Burkitt Creedon) Assessment and Management of Respiratory Failure: A Case Based Presentation
Using case scenarios and video presentations, participants will be guided through the evaluation, diagnosis and development of management plans for common causes of respiratory failure. Learning objectives:
• Use respiratory patterns of patients to help localize causes of respiratory distress
• Evaluate pulse oximetry and blood gas data to help determine the cause and severity of respiratory disease
• Determine empiric and specific therapeutic interventions for animals in respiratory distress
2 CE Credits

12:30-1:30pm  (Squires) Creating Boundaries to Prevent Compassion Fatigue
ADDITIONAL fee required – $50 – lunch included. 
Boundaries can be best described as where one thing ends and another begins. Easy to enforce when we are referring to physical property but not so simple when it comes to personal relationships. Others will always test our boundaries and if we have poor or non-existent ones, we will end up feeling taken advantage of, resentful, angry and frustrated. Creating and enforcing boundaries is difficult but will result in relationships built on respect, not only with others but with yourself as well.  Learning objectives:
• Learn why we lack boundaries
• Discover why boundaries are essential in the work you do
• Find out how to create and enforce your boundaries
• Understand the relationship between empathy, compassion and boundaries
1 CE Credit

2:00-2:50pm (Burkitt Creedon) Advanced Cardiovascular Monitoring in the Clinical Setting
How accurate are we at determining perfusion status in acutely and critically ill patients? This presentation will discuss the strengths and shortcomings of traditional cardiovascular monitoring techniques, and focus on clinically relevant methods of perfusion assessment in dogs and cats. Learning objectives:
• Understand how to interpret physical perfusion parameters and non-invasive blood pressure measurement
• Understand the concept of a “downstream” parameter of tissue oxygen delivery
• Interpret lactate concentration and venous oxygen as markers of perfusion
• Understand the value of serial lactate concentration measurement
1 CE Credit

3:00-3:50pm (Burkitt Creedon) Environmental Lung Injury: Near-Drowning and Smoke Inhalation
Environmental lung injuries are uncommon but life-threatening conditions. This case-based session will review basic pathophysiology, monitoring, and care of drowning and smoke inhalation. Learning objectives:
• Understand the basic pathophysiology of drowning and smoke inhalation
• Recall common comorbidities seen with smoke inhalation and their impact on patient care
• Understand management strategies specific to patients with these conditions
1 CE Credit

4:10-5:00pm (Hopper) Pulmonary Hypertension
Pulmonary hypertension is thought to be a common contributor to respiratory disease in many of our canine patients. As a disease entity, it can pose unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. This session will discuss the pathophysiology, clinical recognition and management strategies of this disease. Learning objectives:
• Describe the major mechanisms of pulmonary hypertension
• Identify patients at risk of pulmonary hypertension
• Recall the major treatment options for pulmonary hypertension
1 CE Credit



8:00-8:50am (Squires) Maintaining Your Passion in Your Career
Feel like you need a career reboot? Regardless of how long you’ve worked in the veterinary field we can sometimes find ourselves feeling drained, burned out and even angry. Emergency and critical care medicine is fast-paced with little time to reflect on our accomplishments and successes let alone find time to unwind and decompress. No wonder you’re feeling the way you do. Learning objectives:
• Understand the negativity bias and how it’s working against you
• Learn the importance of self-care and what it is and isn’t
• Learn strategies to protect yourself from compassion fatigue while increasing your level of job satisfaction
• Cultivate a new perspective on your work
1 CE Credit

9:00-9:20am (Hopper) VetTalks –  Management of Tracheal Tears
Tracheal tears are not uncommon, often following endotracheal intubation in cats. Management options include conservative treatment, bronchoscopic evaluation and surgical intervention.  Learning objectives:
• Recognize patients with tracheal tears
• Evaluate the pros and cons of management options in specific cases
.5 CE Credit

9:30-9:50am (Burkitt Creedon) VetTalks – Useful Tool or Random Number Generator? Getting the Most Out of Your Pulse-Oximeter
Twenty minutes dedicated to making the most out of a challenging piece of technology. Learning objectives:
• Understand the relationship between arterial oxygen tension and SpO2
• Recognize and avoid factors that compromise pulse oximetry readings
.5 CE Credit

10:00-10:20am (Messenger) VetTalks – Pharmacologic Considerations for Patients with Hypoalbuminemia
Many critically ill patients are hypoalbuminemic.  This presentation will review drug protein binding, with a focus on commonly used drugs in the critical patient. We will review when protein binding interactions may be clinically relevant, how changes in protein binding can affect drug pharmacokinetics, and considerations for drug therapy in the hypoalbuminemic patient. Learning objectives:
• Understand drug-protein binding and the effects on drug pharmacokinetics
• Understand the clinical scenarios when drug-protein binding interactions are most relevant
• Understand therapeutic recommendations for the hypoalbuminemic patient
.5 CE Credit

10:40-11:00am (Burkitt Creedon) VetTalks – Female Urinary Catheterization Made Easy
Speculum or otoscope cone? Stylet or none? This short session discusses a blind digital technique that will help you reliably catheterize the female dog urethra. Learning objective:
• Recognize the spacial relationships between lower genitourinary structures in the female dog to help improve blind digital placement of urethral catheters
.5 CE Credit

11:10am-12:00pm  (Burkitt Creedon) Rational Glucocorticoid Use in the Emergency Room
Is it appropriate to use steroids in patients with head trauma? What is the evidence that glucocorticoids cause gastrointestinal bleeding in dogs and cats? We’ll discuss the latest information regarding the use of these drugs in the ER. Learning objectives:
• Recognize situations in which glucocorticoid use is appropriate in emergency patients
• Understand the equipoise that exists for use of steroids in patients with certain conditions
1 CE Credit

12:30-1:30pm (Hopper) Pathophysiology of Pulmonary Parenchymal Disease: A Resident Level Review
ADDITIONAL fee required – $50 – lunch included.  Resident/specialist level but open to all who sign up! 
Understanding the core concepts of pulmonary physiology allows an understanding of how pulmonary disease impairs function and helps guide our therapeutic approach. This session will review the normal structure and function of the lung, how the lung responds to injury and the clinical implications of these responses.Learning objectives:
• Describe the normal structure and function of the lung
• Describe the changes that occur with pulmonary parenchymal disease
• Recognize the protective mechanisms of the lung during disease
• Recall the major factors that impair oxygenation and ventilation
1 CE Credit



8:00-8:50am (Burkitt Creedon) Respiratory Literature Review
This session will review peer-reviewed articles pertinent to the respiratory system in dogs and cats in the past three years. Below is a tentative list of articles to be presented:
1) Keir I, Daly J, Haggerty J, et al. Retrospective evaluation of the effect of high flow oxygen therapy delivered by nasal cannula on PaO2 in dogs with moderate-to-severe hypoxemia. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2016;26:598-602.
2) Carver A, Bragg R, Sullivan L. Evaluation of PaO2/FiO2 and SaO2/FiO2 ratios in postoperative dogs recovering on room air or nasal oxygen insufflation. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2016;26:437-445.
3) Smith KF, Quinn RL, Rahilly LJ. Biomarkers for the differentiation of causes of respiratory distress in dogs and cats: Part 1 – Cardiac diseases and pulmonary hypertension. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2015:25:311-329.
4) Smith KF, Quinn RL, Rahilly LJ. Biomarkers for the differentiation of causes of respiratory distress in dogs and cats: Part 2 –Lower airway, thromboembolic, and inflammatory diseases. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2015:25:330-348.
5) Stillion, JR, Letendre J. A clinical review of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of pyothorax in dogs and cats. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2015:25;113-129.
6) Edwards WH, Erickson Coleman A, Brainard BM, et al. Outcome of positive-pressure ventilation in dogs and cats with congestive heart failure: 16 cases (1992 – 2012). J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2014;24:586-593.
7) Liu DT, Silverstein DC. Feline secondary spontaneous pneumothorax: A retrospective study of 16 cases (2000–2012). J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2014;24:316-325.
8) Oppenheimer N, Klainbart S, Merbl Y, et al. Retrospective evaluation of the use of autologous blood-patch treatment for persistent pneumothorax in 8 dogs (2009 – 2012). J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2014;24:215-220.
Learning objectives:
• Learn up-to-date information regarding acute or severe respiratory diseases in dogs and cats
1 CE Credit

9:00-9:50am (Epstein) Antimicrobial Use Revisited
This lecture will cover the rationale use of antimicrobials. The focus will be on indications for use, optimal duration of use and an approach to choosing antimicrobials balancing the need for antimicrobial stewardship with a critically ill patient. Learning objectives:
• Discuss the indications for antimicrobial use
• Understand the human literature on optimal duration of antimicrobial and its applicability to small animals
• Review the principles of antimicrobial stewardship
1 CE Credit

10:10am-12:30pm (Hopper, Burkitt Creedon, Epstein) Panel Case Discussions
Conundrums: The experts weigh in on case management of patients suffering a variety of issues, including respiratory distress, metabolic cases, etc.  Objectives of this session are to:
• See how specialists from different disciplines come together to solve patient care problems
• Allow interaction with the audience
• Identify new concepts in patient management
2 CE Credits